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[學術論文] 匈牙利人的Y染色体数据(语言文化同人种果然无关系)

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發表於 2011-1-16 21:29:24 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
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匈牙利人的Y染色体数据:


http://www.ranhaer.com/viewthread.php?tid=3588



匈牙利人的语言,与其他欧洲语言文化完全不同,姓名规则是 姓 排在 名 前,被证实其语言文化是来自古代亚洲北部西侵的「匈」(Hun)部族,亦即极有可能是汉代出走漠北的匈奴。


之前人们一直以为,是因为大量来自亚洲北部游牧民族男人的征服,才导致匈牙利出现语言孤岛的状况;但是,经过近年来一系列Y单倍群检测发现,匈牙利人Y染色体来自亚洲北部的成分居然少到可以忽略不计,而欧洲本土成分却是绝对主体。



C3/N/O3a3c/Q:来自亚洲的成分,在匈牙利人中极少,可能无2%。

E2/J:来自阿拉伯半岛的成分,石器时代就已经迁入欧洲,处于东南欧内陆的匈牙利肯定会有;再加上近代的犹太人迁入因素影响;所以量肯定会多。

R1/I/G:欧洲本土白人的成分,在匈牙利人中比例占最大份。




近代的匈牙利,是紧随奥地利(奥地利讲德语)之后的中欧「恶爷」,连奥地利亦无法将其同化(奥匈帝国之下的匈牙利其实高度自治),兼且匈牙利非常强悍,将周围几个斯拉夫国家的边境流入人口都悉数同化掉。
發表於 2011-1-17 10:31:21 | 顯示全部樓層
Genetic_relations_of_European_nations.jpg (1106×1508)
發表於 2011-1-17 12:00:28 | 顯示全部樓層
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mag ... and_genetic_origins
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hungarian_prehistory
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hordes_of_the_Jochid_Ulus
"After him, the Ulus of Jochi was divided into two parts. Those, which relate to the left wing, i.e., the limits of ulug]-taga, Sekiz-yagacha and Karatala to the limits of Tuysena, environments of Jend and Barchkenda, were affirmed after the descendants [Nogai], and they began to be called by the sultans of Ak-Horde; however, the right wing, which includes Ibir-Sibir, Russian, Libka, Ukek, Madzhar, Bulgar, Bashgird and Srai-Berke, was given to descendants [Tokhta], and they named them the sultans of Blue Horde.[5]

A Y-chromosomal comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars (Hungary)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kha ... ture_of_the_Magyars
A 2001 study by Nebel et al. found Haplogroup R1a chromosomes (called Eu 19 in the paper), which are very frequent in Eastern European populations (54%-60%), at elevated frequency (12.7%) in Ashkenazi Jews. The authors hypothesized that these chromosomes could reflect low-level gene flow into Ashkenazi populations from surrounding Eastern European populations, or, alternatively, that both the Ashkenazi Jews in Haplogroup R1a, and to a greater extent all Eastern European populations in general, might have some partial Khazar ancestry.[61]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caucasian_Avars
The earliest mention of the Avars in European history at their current location is from Priscus, who declared that in 463 AD a mixed Saragur, Urog and Unogur embassy asked Byzantium for an alliance, having been dislodged by Sabirs in 461 due to the Avars' drive towards the west[4]. According to the head of the Soviet archaeological-ethnographic expedition of 1945 - 1948, these Caucasian Avars migrated to their present location from Khwarezm, which was originally populated by the Alarodian Hurrians from Subartu (which was to the south of Transcaucasian Iberia)[5]. The Y-Chromosomal J Haplogroups typical for Avar men are still common today in the area of ancient Subartu. According to Omeljan Pritsak and some other scholars, this Avar invasion of the Caucasus resulted in the establishment of the Avar ruling dynasty in Sarir, a Christian state in the Dagestani Highlands, where the Caucasian Avars now live. It is not clear whether or in what way these Avars are related to the early European Avars of the Dark Ages, but it is known that with the mediation of Sarosios in 567, the Göktürks requested Byzantium to distinguish the Avars of Pannonia as "Pseudo-Avars" as opposed to the true Avars of the east who had come under the Göktürk hegemony[6]. The modern Arab Encyclopaedia states that the Magyars originated in this area. The Gokturks might have had a different reason for granting the ethnicon to their subjects in the North-East Caucasus while objecting to their Central European relatives' associating themselves with that illustrious name.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_Q_(Y-DNA)
The frequency of haplogroup Q in Norway is about 4%, while 3% of Hungarian males are in haplogroup Q.
Haplogroup Q is one of the two branches of haplogroup P (M45). Haplogroup Q is believed to have arisen in Central Asia approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. This haplogroup has many diverse haplotypes despite its low frequency among most populations outside of the Americas. There also are over a dozen subclades that have been sampled and identified in modern populations.
Haplogroup Q may be one of the most widely distributed Y-chromosome lineages in the modern world. It is found in the Americas, North Africa, East Asia, South Asia, West Asia, and in Europe.

The highest frequencies of Q in Asia are found among the Selkups (~70%) and Kets (~95%), they live in western and middle Siberia and their populations are small in number, being just under 5,000 and 1,500, respectively.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1a_(Y-DNA)
In Europe, R1a, again almost entirely in the R1a1a sub-clade, is found at highest levels among peoples of Eastern European descent (Sorbs, Poles, Russians and Ukrainians; 50 to 65%).[13][14][15] In the Baltic countries R1a frequencies decrease from Lithuania (45%) to Estonia (around 30%).[16] Levels in Hungarians have been noted between 20 and 60% [17]
In India, high percentage of this haplogroup is observed in West Bengal Brahmins (72%) [10] to the east, Konkanastha Brahmins (48%) [10] to the west, Khatris (67%)[2] in north and Iyenger Brahmins (31%) [10] of south. It has also been found in several South Indian Dravidian-speaking Adivasis including the Chenchu (26%) and the Valmikis of Andhra Pradesh and the Kallar of Tamil Nadu suggesting that M17 is widespread in Tribal Southern Indians.[11]
R1a1a frequencies vary widely between populations within central and northern parts of Eurasia, but it is found in areas including Western China and Eastern Siberia. This variation is possibly a consequence of population bottlenecks in isolated areas and the movements of Scythians in ancient times and later the Turco-Mongols. High frequencies of R1a1a (R-M17 or R-M198; 50 to 70%) are found among the Ishkashimis, Khojant Tajiks, Kyrgyzs, and in several peoples of Russia's Altai Republic.[32][33][34] Although levels are comparatively low amongst some Turkic-speaking groups (e.g. Turks, Azeris, Kazakhs, Yakuts), levels are very high in certain Turkic or Mongolic-speaking groups of Northwestern China, such as the Bonan, Dongxiang, Salar, and Uyghurs.[32][35][36] R1a1a is also found among certain indigenous Eastern Siberians, including:Kamchatkans and Chukotkans, and peaking in Itel'man at 22%.[37]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_I_(Y-DNA)
Average densities occur in Albania 25% [20], Hungary 11%[6] 28%[21], Netherlands 25%, England 20%, Romania/Moldova 22%[10], though reaching 48% in Buhuşi and Piatra Neamţ.[22]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pop ... i#mtDNA_Haplogroups
Although a small proportion of the Haplogroup U (mtDNA) among the Sami falls into U4, the great majority is U5b. The percentage of total Sami mtDNA samples tested by Tambets and her colleagues which were U5b ranged from 56.8% in Nowegian Sami to 26.5% in Swedish Sami.[2] Sami U5b falls into subclade U5b1b1. This subclade is present in the French, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovenian, Czech, Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, and Hungarian mtDNA pools and also in the Caucasus. However 38% of the Sami U5b1b1 mtDNAs have haplotype so far exclusive to the Sami, containing a transition at np 16148.[2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xiongnu
A majority (89%) of the Xiongnu mtDNA sequences can be classified as belonging to Asian haplogroups, and nearly 11% belong to European haplogroups. This finding indicates that the contacts between European and Asian populations were anterior to the Xiongnu culture, and it confirms results reported for two samples from an early 3rd century BC. Scytho-Siberian population (Clisson et al. 2002).
Another study[49] from 2004 screened ancient samples from the Egyin Gol necropolis for the Y-DNA Tat marker. The Egyin Gol necropolis, located in northern Mongolia in the region of Lake Baikal, is ~2300 years old and belongs to the Xiongnu culture. This Tat-polymorphism is a biallelic marker what has so far been observed only in populations from Asia and northern Europe. It reaches its highest frequency in Yakuts and northern Finno-Ugric peoples. Opinions differ about whether the geographic origin of the T-C mutation lies in Asia or northern Eurasia. Zerjal et al. suggested that this mutation first arose in the populations of Central Asia; they proposed Mongolia as a candidate location for the origin of the T-C polymorphism. In contrast, for Lahermo et al. the wide distribution of the mutation in north Eurasian populations suggests that it arose in northern Eurasia. According to them, the estimated time of the C mutation is ~2400–4440 years ago. (According to some more recent researches of the Y-DNA Hg N the presence of N1c and N1b in modern Siberian and Asian populations is considered to reflect an ancient substratum, possibly speaking Uralic/Finno-Ugric languages.[50][51][52][53] Haplogroup N). Concerning the Xiongnu people, two of them from the oldest section harboured the mutation, confirming that the Tat polymorphism already existed in Mongolia 2300 years ago. The next archaeogenetical occurrence of this N-Tat ancient DNA was found in Hungary among the so-called Homeconqueror Hungarians.[54] Also three Yakuts' aDNA from the 15th century, and of two from the late 18th century were this haplogroup.[55] Additionally two mtDNA sequence matches revealed in this work suggest that the Xiongnu tribe under study may have been composed of some of the ancestors of the present-day Yakut population.
Another study of 2006[56] aimed at the contacts between Siberian and steppe peoples with the analysis of a Siberian grave of Pokrovsk recently discovered near the Lena River and dated from 2,400 to 2,200 years B.P., and proved the existence of previous contacts between autochthonous hunters of Siberia and the nomadic horse breeders from the Altai-Baikal area (Mongolia and Buryatia). Indeed, the stone arrowhead and the harpoons relate this Pokrovsk man to the traditional hunters of the Taiga. Some artifacts made of horse bone and the pieces of armor, however, are related to the tribes of Mongolia and Buryatia of the Xiongnu period (3rd century BC). This affinity has been confirmed by the match of the mitochondrial haplotype of this subject with a woman of the Egyin Gol necropolis (2nd/3rd century AD). This haplotype was attributed to the mtDNA D haplogroup. The paternal lineage of the Pokrovsk subject seems to differ from the lineages found in the modern local population. The mtDNA sequence was compared with databases and the haplotype matched two Buryats from the Baikal area, two West Siberians, two Mansis, one Evenk, one older and two modern Yakuts, and one female from the Egyin Gol necropolis. This mitochondrial haplotype is not found in Koryaks, Chukchi, Itelmen, or Yukaghirs, sometimes considered "Paleo-Asiatic" ethnic groups, or in Central Asian populations. The similarity of the mitochondrial haplotype of the Pokrovsk subject with Buryats and a skeleton from the Egyin Gol necropolis, located 2,000 km to the south, confirms the occurrence of ancient contacts between the Altai-Baikal region and Oriental Siberia before the end of the Xiong Nu period (3rd century BC to 2nd century AD). Some female ancestors of this Pokrovsk hunter may originate from the First Empire of the Steppes, well known for its military expansion to the south (China) and to the west. However, the man of the Pokrovsk grave shows that these nomadic people may have also tried to explore the north by diffusion along the rivers. The match of the sequence with two Mansis from the Ural Mountains and two western Siberians could be related to an extensive gene flow along the Ienissei River (Starikovskaya et al. 2005). Considering the important frequency of Asian haplogroups present in the Mansi (Derbeneva et al. 2002), this similarity may stem from the wide expansion of the nomadic tribes from the southern steppe to the Ural Mountains. Thus the gene flow seems to have affected autochthonous populations from Oriental and Occidental Siberia during the Xiong Nu period since the 3rd century BC. The analysis of the Pokrovsk grave corroborates the great influence of the Xiongnu Empire over the Siberian populations and early admixture between populations from the southern steppe and Central Siberia aboriginals.
A research study of 2006[58] focused on Y-DNAs of the Egyin Gol site, and besides the confirmation of the above mentioned two N3-Tats, it also identified a Q haplogroup from the middle period and a C haplogroup from the later (2nd century AD). The Q is one of the haplogroups of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (though this is not this subclade), and a minor in Siberia and Central Asia. Only two groups in the Old World are high majority Q groups. These are the Uralic Selkups and the Yeniseian Kets. They live in western and middle Siberia, together with the Ugric Khantys. The Kets originally lived in southern Siberia. The Uralic-Samoyedics were an old people of the Sayan-Baikal region, migrated northwest around the 1st/2nd century AD. According to the Uralistic literature[59] the swift migration and disjunction of the Samoyedic peoples may be connected to a heavy warring in the region, probably due to the dissolution of the Xiongnu Empire in the period of the Battle of Ikh Bayan. The mutation defining this haplogroup C, is restrained in North and Eastern-Asia and in America (Bergen et al. 1998. 1999.) (Lell et al. 2002.). The highest frequencies of Haplogroup C3 are found among the populations of Mongolia and the Russian Far East, where it is generally the modal haplogroup. Haplogroup C3 is the only variety of Haplogroup C to be found among Native Americans, among whom it reaches its highest frequency in Na-Dené populations.
A study of 2010 [61] analysed six human remains of a nomadic group, excavated from Pengyang, Northern China. From the mtDNA, six haplotypes were identified as three haplogroups: C, D4 and M10. The analyses revealed that these individuals were closely associated with the ancient Xiongnu and modern northern Asians. The analysis of Y chromosomes from four male samples that were typed as haplogroup Q indicated that these people had originated in Siberia.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_N1a_(mtDNA)
Seven of 42 skeletons from Linear Pottery Culture sites were found to be members of the N1a haplogroup (see Neolithic European section). N1a was also identified in remains from a 6200 year-old megalithic long mound near Prissé-la-Charrière, France.[10] A 2500 year old fossil of a Scytho-Siberian in the Altai Republic, easternmost representative of the Scythians, was found to be a member of N1a1.[11] A study of a 10th and 11th century Hungarians found that N1a1a1 was present in high-status individuals but absent from commoners.[12] One of thirteen skeletons analyzed from a medieval cemetery dated 1250-1450 AD in Denmark was found to be a member of subclade N1a1a.[13]
Distribution

Haplogroup N1a is widely distributed throughout Eurasia and Eastern Africa and is divided into the European/Central Asian and African/South Asian branches based on specific genetic markers.
[edit]Near East
Relatively high frequencies of N1a are found in the modern population of Saudi Arabia. Estimates range from 2.4%[14] to 4%.[15] Regional analysis revealed that the haplogroup was most common in the center of the country. Haplotype diversity is noted for being higher here than elsewhere.[4]
Frequencies of N1a in Yemen are relatively high, with estimates varying by study: 3.6%,[14] 5.2%,[16] and 6.9%.[15] Yemen is noted for high haplotype diversity within the population.[4][16]
Elsewhere in the Near East, prevalence of N1a is lower. A 2008 article cited population frequencies of 1.1% in Qatar, 0.3% in Iran, and 0.2% in Turkey.[14]
[edit]Europe
N1a is a rare haplogroup that currently appears in only 0.2% of European populations.[5] Pockets of higher frequencies exist such as in Croatia where 0.7% of mainland Croatians,[17] 9.24% of the population on the island of Cres,[18] and 1.9% of the population on the island of Brač are members of N1a. In the Volga-Ural region of Russia, N1a is most prominent in the Komi-Permyaks (9.5%) followed by the Bashkirs (3.6%), Chuvash (1.8%), and Tatars (0.4%).[19] A study of 542 individuals in Portugal found an N1a frequency of 0.37%. Only 0.11% of individuals analyzed in Scotland were members of the haplogroup.[20]
[edit]Asia
Analysis of modern Siberian populations revealed a 1.2% prevalence in Altaians, 0.2% in the Buryats,[21] and 0.9% in the Khanty people.[22] In India, N1a was only identified in Indo-Aryan speakers at a frequency of 8.3%.[11] All but one of the N1a individuals were members of the Havik group, a Brahmin upper caste.
[edit]Africa
Individuals with N1a have been identified in Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, and Tanzania.[5] In Ethiopia, 2.2% of the population was found be members of N1a, but the haplogroup was only identified in Semitic speakers.[16] In Egypt, 0.8% of the population were found to be members of N1a.[14]
N1a originated in the Near East [3] 12,000 to 32,000 years ago.[1] Specifically, the Arabian Peninsula is postulated as the geographic origin of N1a. This supposition is based on the relatively high frequency and genetic diversity of N1a in modern populations of the peninsula.[4] Exact origins and migration patterns of this haplogroup are still subject of some debate.
[edit]Debate on Origin of Neolithic Europeans
Two competing scenarios exist for the spread of the Neolithic from the Near East to Europe:
Demic diffusion (in which farming is brought by farmers), for example Renfrew's Anatolian hypothesis
Cultural diffusion (in which farming is spread by the passage of ideas), which is the assumption in Alinei's Paleolithic Continuity Theory.
N1a became particularly prominent in this debate when a team led by Wolfgang Haak analyzed skeletons from Linear Pottery Culture sites. The Linear Pottery Culture is credited with the first farming communities in Central Europe, marking the beginning of Neolithic Europe in the region some 7500 years ago. As of 2010, mitochondrial DNA analysis has been conducted on 42 specimens from five locations. Seven of the 42 specimens were found to be members of haplogroup N1a[5][6] A separate study analyzed 22 skeletons from European hunter-gatherer sites dated 13400-2300 BC. Most of these remains were members of Haplogroup U, which was not found in any of the Linear Pottery Culture sites. Conversely, N1a was not identified in any of the hunter-gatherer fossils, indicating a genetic distinction between early European farmers and late European hunter-gatherers.[7]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyrgyz
The descent of the Kyrgyz from the autochthonous Siberian population is confirmed by genetic studies.[13] Remarkably, 63% of modern Kyrgyz men share Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA) with Tajiks (64%), Ukrainians (54%), Poles (~60%), Hungarians (30%) and even Icelanders (25%). Low diversity of Kyrgyz R1a1 indicates a founder effect within the historical period.[14] Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA) is often believed to be a marker of the Proto-Indo-European language [15] speakers.
發表於 2011-1-17 12:00:48 | 顯示全部樓層
Haplogroup_I.png (776×600)
發表於 2011-9-4 02:51:20 | 顯示全部樓層
Good!! Thx for sharing!
發表於 2012-7-21 10:07:03 | 顯示全部樓層
但北匈奴嘅dna係乜都無人知,可能渠哋根本係白人。
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